Muscogee (Creek) Nation History:
The Muscogee (Creek) people are descendents of the Mississippian Culture that, before 1500 AD, spanned the entire region of the present Southeastern United States. The Muscogee were not one tribe but a confederacy of several that existed in the river valleys of the present states of Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina, and Florida. Within this confederacy, the language and the culture of the founding tribal towns became dominant. Variations of the Muscogean language were spoken, but the confederacy incorporated other groups, such as the Yuchi, who, still today, speak a different language.
In 1690, after building a trading post along the Ochese Creek, the British eventually referred to the Muscogee people simply as the “Creeks” because of their location along Ochese Creek (present-day Ocmulgee River in Georgia).
In the removal treaty of 1832, Muscogee leadership exchanged the last of Muscogee ancestral homelands for new lands in Indian Territory (Oklahoma). The U.S. Army enforced the removal of more than 20,000 Muscogee to Indian Territory in 1836-1837.
A portion of Muscogee people settled in present-day Tulsa in 1833. They held council meetings at the Council Oak tree which stands at the present location of Eighteenth Street between Cheyenne and Boulder avenues. There, the band of Muscogee people known as the Locvpokv /LŌ•juh•BŌ•guh/ placed ashes brought from their original fires in Alabama. The Locvpokv originally referred to this place as Tvlvhasse /TUHL•uh•HAHS•see/ “old town.” This would later be shortened to Tulsa. After 1879, Tulsa’s first post office was established near Thirty-eighth and Trenton streets at a ranch house owned by George Perryman. Josiah Choteau Perryman would be Tulsa’s first appointed postmaster.
In 1867, the Muscogee people adopted a written constitution and established a new capitol on the Deep Fork of the Canadian River at Okmulgee, shortened from Owamvrke /Oh•wuh•Muhth•gee/ “boiling water.” In 1878, the Nation constructed a native stone Council House which remains at the center of the modern city.